Features | Partner Sites | Information | LinkXpress
Sign In
GLOBETECH MEDIA
GLOBETECH PUBLISHING LLC
GLOBETECH PUBLISHING LLC

Newly Developed Compound Protects Heart Cells During and After Infarction

By BiotechDaily International staff writers
Posted on 18 Feb 2013
Using two recently developed diverse compounds, scientists have been able to show in animal models that suppressing a specific enzyme protects heart cells and neighboring tissue against the debilitating injury incurred by heart attacks. The compounds also protect against additional damage from restored blood flow after an attack, a process known as reperfusion.

The study, which was led by Dr. Philip LoGrasso, a professor and senior scientific director of discovery biology at the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI; Jupiter, USA), was published in the February 8, 2013, print edition of the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

A myocardial infarction greatly restricts blood supply, starving heart cells and neighboring tissue of oxygen, which can cause enormous damage in comparatively little time—at times in just a few minutes. This decrease in oxygen, known as an ischemic cascade, results in a sudden crush of metabolic waste that damages cell membranes as well as the mitochondria.

Restoring blood flow adds considerably to the damage, unfortunately, a serious medical issue when it comes to treating major ischemic events such as stroke and heart attack. Reperfusion triggers generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species that attack and damage cells, intensifying inflammation, signaling white blood cells to attack otherwise salvageable cells and maybe even stimulating potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmias.

The new study revealed that inhibiting the enzyme, c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK; pronounced junk), protected against ischemic/reperfusion injury in lab rodents, reducing the total volume of tissue death by as much as 34%. It also substantially decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction.

In earlier studies, TSRI scientists discovered that JNK migrates to the mitochondria upon oxidative stress. That migration, combined with JNK activation, they found, is associated with a number of severe health issues, including liver damage, neuronal cell death, stroke, and heart attack. The peptide and small molecule inhibitor (SR3306), developed by Dr. LoGrasso and his colleagues, blocks those harmful effects, thereby reducing programmed cell death four-fold.

“This is the same story,” said Dr. LoGrasso. “These just happen to be heart cells, but we know that oxidative stress kills cells, and JNK inhibition protects against this stress. Blocking the translocation of JNK to the mitochondria is essential for stopping this killing cascade and may be an effective treatment for damage done to heart cells during an ischemic/reperfusion event.”

Moreover, according to Dr. LoGrasso, biomarkers that intensify during a heart attack decrease in the presence of JNK inhibition, a distinct indication that blocking JNK reduces the severity of the infarction.

Related Links:

The Scripps Research Institute




Channels

Genomics/Proteomics

view channel
Image: The bone marrow of mice with normal ether lipid production (top) contains more white blood cells than are found in the bone marrow of mice with ether lipid deficiency (bottom) (Photo courtesy of Washington University School of Medicine).

Inactivating Fatty Acid Synthase Reduces Inflammation by Interfering with Neutrophil Membrane Function

The enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) was shown to regulate inflammation by sustaining neutrophil viability through modulation of membrane phospholipid composition. Neutrophils are the most abundant... Read more

Drug Discovery

view channel
Image: Researchers have attached two drugs—TRAIL and Dox—onto graphene strips. TRAIL is most effective when delivered to the external membrane of a cancer cell, while Dox is most effective when delivered to the nucleus, so the researchers designed the system to deliver the drugs sequentially, with each drug hitting a cancer cell where it will do the most damage (Photo courtesy of Dr. Zhen Gu, North Carolina State University).

Anticancer Drug Delivery System Utilizes Graphene Strip Transporters

The ongoing search by cancer researchers for targeted drug delivery systems has generated a novel approach that uses graphene strips to transport simultaneously the anticancer agents TRAIL (tumor necrosis... Read more

Biochemistry

view channel

Blocking Enzyme Switch Turns Off Tumor Growth in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Researchers recently reported that blocking the action of an enzyme “switch” needed to activate tumor growth is emerging as a practical strategy for treating T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. An estimated 25% of the 500 US adolescents and young adults diagnosed yearly with this aggressive disease fail to respond to... Read more

Lab Technologies

view channel
Image: MIT researchers have designed a microfluidic device that allows them to precisely trap pairs of cells (one red, one green) and observe how they interact over time (Photo courtesy of Burak Dura, MIT).

New Device Designed to See Communication between Immune Cells

The immune system is a complicated network of many different cells working together to defend against invaders. Effectively combating an infection depends on the interactions between these cells.... Read more

Business

view channel

Biotech Acquisition Designed to Accelerate the Development and Marketing of Immunosequencing Applications

Adaptive Biotechnologies Corp. (Seattle, WA, USA), a developer of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to profile T-cell and B-cell receptors, has acquired of Sequenta, Inc. (South San Francisco, CA, USA), which is expected to expedite and expand the use of innovative immunosequencing technology for researchers and clinicians... Read more
 
Copyright © 2000-2015 Globetech Media. All rights reserved.