Features | Partner Sites | Information | LinkXpress
Sign In
GLOBETECH PUBLISHING
JIB
GLOBETECH PUBLISHING

Genetic Errors Identified in 12 Major Cancer Types

By BiotechDaily International staff writers
Posted on 07 Nov 2013
Image: Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded human ovary tumor using P53 antibody (Photo courtesy of Proteintech).
Image: Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded human ovary tumor using P53 antibody (Photo courtesy of Proteintech).
The latest sequencing and analysis methods have been used to identify somatic variants across thousands of tumors, and 127 significantly mutated genes were detected.

Some of the same genes commonly mutated in certain cancers also occur in seemingly unrelated tumors. For example, a gene mutated in 25% of leukemia cases in the study also was found in tumors of the breast, rectum, head and neck, kidney, lung, ovary and uterus.

Scientists at the Washington University School of Medicine (St. Louis, MO, USA) performed exome sequencing on thousands of tumor samples and matched normal tissues, the latter being used as controls to distinguish somatic mutations from inherited variants. The teams analyzed the genes from 3,281 tumors, a collection of cancers of the breast, uterus, head and neck, colon and rectum, bladder, kidney, ovary, lung, brain and blood. In addition to finding common links among genes in different cancers, the scientists also identified a number of mutations exclusive to particular cancer types.

While the average number of mutated genes in tumors varied among the cancer types, most tumors had only two to six mutations in genes that drive cancer. This may be one reason why cancer is so common. Genes that have a significant effect on survival were also identified. These included tumor protein p53 (TP53), an already well-known cancer gene, occurred most commonly across the different tumor types. It was found in 42% of samples and routinely was associated with a poor prognosis, particularly in kidney cancer, head and neck cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Another gene, Breast Cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein-1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase) (BAP1), was also linked with an unfavorable prognosis, especially in patients with kidney and uterine cancer.

These discoveries set the stage for devising new diagnostic tools and more personalized cancer treatments. Li Ding, PhD, the senior author of the study, said, “Because we now know, for example, that genes mutated in leukemia also can be altered in breast cancer and that genetic errors in lung cancer also can show up in colon and rectal cancer, we think one inclusive diagnostic test that includes all cancer genes would be ideal. This would provide a more complete picture of what's going on in a tumor, and that information could be used to make decisions about treatment.” The study was published on October 16, 2013, in the journal Nature.

Related Links:

Washington University School of Medicine



comments powered by Disqus

Channels

Drug Discovery

view channel
Image: The European Commission has approved the use of Avastin combined with chemotherapy as a treatment for women with recurrent ovarian cancer (Photo courtesy of Genentech).

Drug for Treatment of Platinum Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Cancer Approved for Use in Europe

For the first time in more than 15 years the European Commission (EC) has approved a new therapeutic option for the most difficult to treat form of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer causes more deaths... Read more

Therapeutics

view channel
Image: This type of electronic pacemaker could become obsolete if induction of biological pacemaker cells by gene therapy proves successful (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons).

Gene Therapy Induces Functional Pacemaker Cells in Pig Heart Failure Model

Cardiovascular disease researchers working with a porcine heart failure model have demonstrated the practicality of using gene therapy to replace implanted electronic pacemakers to regulate heartbeat.... Read more

Lab Technologies

view channel
Image: The DrySyn MULTI converts any standard hotplate stirrer into a high performance reaction block (Photo courtesy of Asynt).

New Reaction Vessel Heating System Is Cleaner and Safer

Biotech and other life science researchers can create a safer, cleaner, and more efficient working environment in their laboratories by switching from oil bath-based heating of reaction vessels to a new... Read more

Business

view channel

Global Computational Biology Sector Expected to Reach over USD 4 Billion by 2020

The global market for computational biology is expected to reach USD 4.285 billion by 2020 growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.1%, according to new market research. Steady surge in the usage and application of computational biology for bioinformatics R&D programs designed for sequencing genomes... Read more
 
Copyright © 2000-2014 Globetech Media. All rights reserved.