Features | Partner Sites | Information | LinkXpress
Sign In
BioConferenceLive
GLOBETECH PUBLISHING
JIB

A Histone Demethylase Regulates Stem Cell Differentiation

By BiotechDaily International staff writers
Posted on 06 Mar 2013
A recent publication detailed how the protein Fbxl10 regulates the maturation process that takes place when an embryonic stem cell differentiates into a specialized, functional tissue cell.

Fbxl10 is a histone demethylase enzyme that removes a methyl group from lysine-4' and lysine-36' of the histone H3. Preferentially Fbxl10 removes methyl groups from trimethylated H3 lysine-4' and dimethylated H3 lysine-36' residues while it has weak or no activity for mono- or trimethylated H3 lysine-36'. Fbxl10 preferentially binds the transcribed region of ribosomal RNA and represses the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes which inhibits cell growth and proliferation.

In the paper published in the February 7, 2013, online edition of the journal Molecular Cell investigators at the University of Copenhagen (Denmark) found that to regulate stem cell maturation Fbxl10 directly recruits Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 proteins into CpG islands.

Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins are a family of proteins first discovered in fruit flies that can remodel chromatin so that epigenetic silencing of genes takes place. In humans, Polycomb Group gene expression is important in many aspects of development. Mouse mutants lacking PRC2 (Polycomb Repressive Complex 2) genes die as embryos while most PRC1 (Polycomb Repressive Complex 1) mutants are born alive but with anatomic rearrangements that cause them to die shortly after birth. In contrast, overexpression of PcG proteins correlates with the severity and invasiveness of several cancer types.

CpG islands are genomic regions that contain a high frequency of CpG sites. The "p" in CpG refers to the phosphodiester bond between the cytosine and the guanine residues, which indicates that the C and the G are next to each other in sequence, regardless of being single- or double-stranded. In a CpG site, both C and G are found on the same strand of DNA or RNA and are connected by a phosphodiester bond.

“Our new results show that this molecule is required for the function of one of the most important molecular switches that constantly regulates the activity of our genes. If Fbxl10 is not present in embryonic stem cells, the cells cannot differentiate properly, and this can lead to developmental defects,” said Dr. Kristian Helin, professor of health sciences at the University of Copenhagen.

Related Links:
University of Copenhagen




comments powered by Disqus

Channels

Drug Discovery

view channel
Image: Molecular rendering of the crystal structure of parkin (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons).

Cinnamon Feeding Blocks Development of Parkinson's Disease in Mouse Model

A team of neurological researchers has identified a molecular mechanism by which cinnamon acts to protect neurons from damage caused by Parkinson's disease (PD) in a mouse model of the syndrome.... Read more

Therapeutics

view channel
Image: This type of electronic pacemaker could become obsolete if induction of biological pacemaker cells by gene therapy proves successful (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons).

Gene Therapy Induces Functional Pacemaker Cells in Pig Heart Failure Model

Cardiovascular disease researchers working with a porcine heart failure model have demonstrated the practicality of using gene therapy to replace implanted electronic pacemakers to regulate heartbeat.... Read more

Lab Technologies

view channel
Image: A one-year-old baby sits in a brain scanner, called magnetoencephalography (MEG)—a noninvasive approach to measuring brain activity. The baby listens to speech sounds such as “da” and “ta” played over headphones while researchers record her brain responses (Photo courtesy of the Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences at the University of Washington).

Brain Scanner Shows Infants’ Brains Rehearse Speech Sounds Months Before Their First Words

New research in 7- and 11-month-old infants revealed that speech sounds stimulate brain regions that coordinate and plan motor movements for speech. The new study suggests that babies’ brains begin establishing... Read more

Business

view channel

Cancer Immunotherapy Sector Predicted to Surge to USD 9 Billion Across Major Pharma Through 2022

The immunotherapy market will experience substantial growth through 2022, increasing from USD 1.1 billion in 2012 to nearly USD 9 billion in 2022 (corresponding to 23.8% annual growth) in the United Kingdom, United States, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Japan, according to recent market research. This notable growth... Read more
 
Copyright © 2000-2014 Globetech Media. All rights reserved.