Features | Partner Sites | Information | LinkXpress
Sign In
GLOBETECH MEDIA
GLOBETECH PUBLISHING LLC
GLOBETECH PUBLISHING LLC

Whole Exome Sequencing of Small Intestine Neuroendocrine Tumors May Lead to Development of Personalized Treatment

By BiotechDaily International staff writers
Posted on 30 May 2013
Image: First author Dr. Michaela S. Banck (Photo courtesy of the Mayo Clinic).
Image: First author Dr. Michaela S. Banck (Photo courtesy of the Mayo Clinic).
Whole exome sequencing of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, the most common malignancy of the small bowel, revealed genomic alterations that might be susceptible to chemotherapy in 72% of the patients studied.

The exome is the part of the genome formed by exons, nucleotide sequences encoded by a gene that remain present within the final mature RNA product of that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing. The term exon refers to both the DNA sequence within a gene and to the corresponding sequence in RNA transcripts. The exome of the human genome consists of roughly 180,000 exons constituting about 1% of the total genome, or about 30 megabases of DNA. Though comprising a very small fraction of the genome, mutations in the exome are thought to harbor 85% of disease-causing mutations.

Investigators at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) analyzed the exomes of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors from 48 patients, along with normal tissue from those same 48 patients. They employed massively parallel, or “nextgen,” DNA sequencing, which facilitates the collection of comprehensive, genome-wide, unbiased datasets providing a common data framework for comparing results across different tumor types and gene sets. This technique provides the most comprehensive technology to date to explore the potential of genomics for individualizing cancer treatment within a tumor type.

Data obtained from analysis of the 96 whole exome sequences was published in the May 15, 2013, online edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The findings revealed that small intestine neuroendocrine tumors samples carried low numbers of point mutations and characteristic recurrent patterns of gene duplications and losses. Candidate therapeutically relevant alterations were found in 35 of the 48 patients, including SRC, SMAD family genes, AURKA, EGFR, HSP90, and PDGFR. Mutually exclusive amplification of the serine-threonine protein kinases AKT1 or AKT2 was the most common event in 16 patients who displayed alterations of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) is a component of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and mutations in AKT1 have been implicated in breast, colorectal, and lung cancers,

“This is a very important step in achieving targeted therapies and individualized treatment approaches for patients with small bowel carcinoids,” said first author Dr. Michaela Banck, an oncologist at the Mayo Clinic. “Genomic analysis of the individual patient’s tumors will help us identify new drugs that are targeted to the individual’s disease.”

Related Links:
Mayo Clinic



Channels

Drug Discovery

view channel
Image: Researchers have attached two drugs—TRAIL and Dox—onto graphene strips. TRAIL is most effective when delivered to the external membrane of a cancer cell, while Dox is most effective when delivered to the nucleus, so the researchers designed the system to deliver the drugs sequentially, with each drug hitting a cancer cell where it will do the most damage (Photo courtesy of Dr. Zhen Gu, North Carolina State University).

Anticancer Drug Delivery System Utilizes Graphene Strip Transporters

The ongoing search by cancer researchers for targeted drug delivery systems has generated a novel approach that uses graphene strips to transport simultaneously the anticancer agents TRAIL (tumor necrosis... Read more

Biochemistry

view channel

Blocking Enzyme Switch Turns Off Tumor Growth in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Researchers recently reported that blocking the action of an enzyme “switch” needed to activate tumor growth is emerging as a practical strategy for treating T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. An estimated 25% of the 500 US adolescents and young adults diagnosed yearly with this aggressive disease fail to respond to... Read more

Therapeutics

view channel
Image: Cancer cells infected with tumor-targeted oncolytic virus (red). Green indicates alpha-tubulin, a cell skeleton protein. Blue is DNA in the cancer cell nuclei (Photo courtesy of Dr. Rathi Gangeswaran, Bart’s Cancer Institute).

Innovative “Viro-Immunotherapy” Designed to Kill Breast Cancer Cells

A leading scientist has devised a new treatment that employs viruses to kill breast cancer cells. The research could lead to a promising “viro-immunotherapy” for patients with triple-negative breast cancer,... Read more

Lab Technologies

view channel
Image: MIT researchers have designed a microfluidic device that allows them to precisely trap pairs of cells (one red, one green) and observe how they interact over time (Photo courtesy of Burak Dura, MIT).

New Device Designed to See Communication between Immune Cells

The immune system is a complicated network of many different cells working together to defend against invaders. Effectively combating an infection depends on the interactions between these cells.... Read more

Business

view channel

Biotech Acquisition Designed to Accelerate the Development and Marketing of Immunosequencing Applications

Adaptive Biotechnologies Corp. (Seattle, WA, USA), a developer of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to profile T-cell and B-cell receptors, has acquired of Sequenta, Inc. (South San Francisco, CA, USA), which is expected to expedite and expand the use of innovative immunosequencing technology for researchers and clinicians... Read more
 
Copyright © 2000-2015 Globetech Media. All rights reserved.